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Monday, 18 January 2016

The Amazing 'Globe Stopper'

The 'codd bottle', as it's best known, really caught my imagination. What an amazing piece of ingenuity! A bottle which has it's own internal stopper, is able to store carbonated drinks and was invented nearly 150 years ago - I thought I'd find out a little more about how these wonderful creations came to be...


My ebay find - displaying the name H W Stevens of Colchester and Ipswich

I've done some research on local soft drinks companies and often the codd bottle would be mentioned. I wasn't quite sure what one was, so I googled it and then had a look on ebay and got myself a local example for a good price!

Where Did It All Start?



Hiram Codd
Hiram Codd was born in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk in 1838 (just 15 miles up the road from me - well fancy that!). He moved to London and early in his career became an engineer working for the British and Foreign Cork Company. He was promoted to ‘Traveller for the Business’ and by 1870 had left that company and was working for himself. He had his own soda water manufacturing business and, being an inventor, wanted to improve the manufacturing and bottling process. It was then that he devised and patented his own bottling machine.

He persuaded two gentlemen to invest in his business and then went into partnership with another mineral water manufacturer so he could concentrate on designing a new type of bottle and by 1873 had perfected his ‘globe stopper’ bottle—the bottles we know today as ‘codd’ bottles.


Mineral water manufacturers who wanted to bottle their products in his ingenious bottles paid a yearly fee for a licence to manufacture the new bottles. By 1874 Codd made his bottles free to make and use  so long as the companies manufacturing them bought the marbles, the sealing rings and the groove tool manufactured by Codd in his Hope Glassworks Factory in Barnsley. 


The Bottle

The clever neck
The Codd-neck bottles were developed specifically for carbonated drinks. They worked by using a marble as a stopper. The marble was enclosed in the neck of the bottle and was held in place with a rubber washer/gasket at the top. 

The bottles were filled upside down, and the pressure from the gas in the bottle forced the marble against the washer, sealing in the carbonation. The bottle was pinched into a special shape to provide a chamber into which the marble was pushed to open the bottle. This prevented the marble from blocking the neck as the drink was poured. It also stored the marble so it could be used again.


Although my bottle (left) is in one piece, it's missing the sealing ring/washer and would therefore not work now. You can see the marble in the neck and the chamber to the right of the marble where it would be 'caught' while you drank from the bottle.



Another Idea

Hiram was always thinking of better ways to do things and in 1880 he had the clever idea of a bottle exchange where empty bottles could be returned to their original owners via bottle exchanges. Agents charged a small fee on each bottle for providing this service (one penny per 144 bottles). This idea went on for a long while and I’m sure some people can remember taking the ‘Corona’ bottles back to the shop and getting the reward (perhaps, like me, to spend on sweets!). 


The End of the Story


In February 1884 Hiram's wife of 28 years passed away and it appears that from that point he seemed to lose interest in inventions and ideas.  In October the same year, he sold his share of the business and did not renew any of his patents, so anyone was free to make his wonderful bottles.

In 1885 he married his second wife and just two years later at the age of 49 he passed away.


What a load of codswallop!

Well, yes it is actually! I have heard of the term codswallop and some seemed to think it came from a mixture of our friend 'Codd's' bottle and a slang term for beer 'wallop' which used by beer drinkers to describe the delights of soft drinks! After a long and detailed study to find out where the term came from no evidence has been found of the word before the mid 20th century and the idea has therefore been dismissed this as a valid theory.

However, the term was used with regard to the codd bottle itself. It was the name given to the wooden device placed over the neck which was given a push (wallop) to dislodge the marble in the neck (oh, so it sounds as if you couldn't push it in with your finger then - I can visualise many a broken nail!). The word has also been used to describe the process of opening a codd bottle.


Survival of the Codd Bottle


The bottles were popular in Europe, Asia, Australasia and I even found a website about their history in the USA named: Ann Act of Codd - Codd Bottles in America?  They are still being used today in Japan and India.

Not too many bottles have made it in one piece. The bottles were just too appealing for young boys who smashed them in order to get to the marble inside and therefore most bottles ended up in pieces. Today, as there becomes less and less people still with us who actually witnessed the bottles in every day use, they have become an unusual item -
I've explained the ingenuity of my codd bottle many times. They are also now sought after by collectors  - I spotted one on ebay today going for an astonishing £145. 


Thursday, 10 September 2015

Class, Politics and Illiteracy in 18th century Ipswich - The Story of Charles Jobson



‘Class, Politics and Illiteracy in 18th Century Ipswich’ – Oh! Doesn’t that sound boring? Right then, how about: ‘The Skeleton in the tomb – Digging up the past at the Waterfront’?

 

I was asked to do some historical writing for St Mary at the Quay church down at the old docks (or the new waterfront) in Ipswich. Some Codd bottles had been found, amongst other things, in a dig last year. I had written a couple of blogs about mineral water companies who traded in Ipswich. I like my work as a genealogist, but this was an opportunity to write about history, what I had always wanted to do.


I had researched and written about the origin of Codd bottles for the history project and attended an open day at the church to answer questions about them, which was all very straightforward, but this was different. I've had trouble getting ‘into’ the subject. The subject is Charles Jobson, born in c.1773. He lived in Ipswich all his life, traded in the town and his bones were buried in a tomb in the churchyard of St Mary at the Quay in 1832. It was my job to bring him back to life - in the literary sense. 

Charles Jobson as he was found in his tomb.
I think most of my problems stemmed because I didn’t do my own research. I was handed ten A4 pages full of dates and details in timeline form - the research had already been done and I didn’t know or understand Charles Jobson or that time in history (everything I had learned about the 18th century at university was well past it's use by date!). Previously my interest had been in the Victorians, (those people who gave us hypocritical moral standards and consumerism). But now I needed to find out about the people who lived before, the Georgians, the ones who reinforced class divisions and gave us party politics. Those people who sewed the seeds for the industrial revolution and made the Victorians who they were.

So, where did I start? Here was a man who was a Freeman of the town, a Water Bailiff, an Importer of salt fish from Iceland using his own boats and a man rich enough to be buried in a substantial tomb. Yet, he was also a Tavern Keeper who lived in his own tavern and who couldn’t write a word! This life of his seemed to contradict itself at every turn. Was he respected or scorned? How and where did he fit into the community of Ipswich? I’d got an awful lot to do to understand his life and do his memory justice.


Charles’ Personal Life

Charles' coffin plate
Charles was born c.1773 in Ipswich. We know from a record of the Freemen of Ipswich that his father was William Jobson. Charles married Ann Ramsey at St Mary at the Quay on 29 May 1796 both Charles and Ann signed their names with a X. Charles’ father William was buried at St Mary on 8 March 1809. 
  • Charles had a son, also named Charles, who married Mary Wade from St Mary at Stoke parish in 1821.  Charles junior, a Mariner, like his father and two generations of male ancestors before him, also became a Freeman in 1819.
  • His daughter, Mary Ann married James Trott in 1823 who was Master of the Brig Union at Woodbridge. 
  • His daughter Caroline married John Bush in 1828.
  • His daughter, Charlotte, married John Randall in 1829.
On 30 August 1831, Charles’ wife Ann died at the age of 56 and was buried at St Mary. On 12 June 1832 Charles married Jemima Hamblin, a widow of St Peter’s parish. Jemima carried on Charles' business at the Smack Inn after Charles’ death.

Charles died on 28 August 1832, aged 59, and was buried in the tomb where he was found in 2014 in the graveyard at St Mary Quay.

Charles, The Freeman and Water Bailiff

In the late 18th /early 19th century there were only two political parties in England, the Whigs and the Tories. The Whigs (the Yellows) tended to be religious dissenters, financiers, businessmen and naval officers. They attended Cambridge University and later supported the idea of the supremacy of parliament over the monarch, the abolition of slavery and expansion of the franchise (suffrage). The Tories (the Blues), on the other hand, tended to be conventional in their beliefs and regularly attend the established church. They were supporters of the gentry and the monarchy and attended Oxford University. Each party read their own newspapers and had separate parades, theatres and clubs. 

Politics at that time was very corrupt. I’m sure most of us have seen the ‘Election’ episode of Blackadder (season three, episode one), if you haven’t, it will give you a good (if exaggerated) idea about the politics of the time. (William Pitt the Younger was actually 24 when he became Prime Minister and he wasn’t half way through his exams!) Nothing was thought about bribing, bullying and blackmailing to get a vote - it was all quite acceptable. It wasn’t until the Reform Act of 1835 that politicians became the truthful, honest and trustworthy individuals we know today (if only!). 

In Ipswich, it was the Municipal Corporation which played the central role of governance. It regulated trade, maintained the commercial infrastructure and cared for the poor through the parishes. It controlled the economic and social lives of all the inhabitants of the town. Most power was held by the senior and administrative officers and beneath them were the ‘official servants’: the policing and enforcement officers, the revenue and market supervisors and the parish officers. Most, but not all these positions were taken by the Freemen of the town.

Freemen (originally a serf who had earned freedom from his feudal lord) comprised of about a quarter of the town’s adult male population.  There were two ways to become a Freeman, by patrimony (because your father was a freeman) or servitude (you served an apprenticeship).  Freemen had rights and privileges that set them apart from the rest of the inhabitants of the town. 

An election procession in 1781
Not only were Freemen allowed to trade and manufacture without the restrictions that were put upon others, but perhaps the most important aspect of being a Freeman was that you were entitled to vote at the Great Court. Because of the shady state of politics at that time, Freemen were regularly ‘wined and dined’ and entertained by either party in order to acquire their vote. Another benefit of becoming a Freeman was that you could be appointed to hold office by the Corporation. About 6% of freemen held one or more positions of varying authority in Ipswich. 

Charles Jobson was a Freeman, he was made a Freeman in 1794 at the age of 21 on the ground of patronage - his father was a Freeman. Charles also held the position of Water Bailiff. His father, William and his grandfather George, as well as being Freemen, held that same position of Water Bailiff continuously from 1753 right into 1790, you might say they had a job for life! Water Bailiffs were part of the lower tier of government - something like a Customs and Excise Officer today. He would make sure that the correct taxes were paid on boats and regulate and supervise the port. (I wonder how much of an advantage this was for Charles? We know from newspaper records he had his own ‘fleet’ of smacks and brigs.) Water Bailiff was a respectable title, the position gave a modicum of power, an extra income and a chance to rub shoulders with those of a higher status.
There are newspaper articles recording Charles running for the position of Water Bailiff on behalf of the ‘Blues’. If you were a Tory at the end of the 18th century you were very likely to have been a devout Christian. Charles would have attended church regularly and led a rather spiritual life with his family. His attendance and connection to St Mary would have played a big part in his life socially as well as spiritually and the parish of St Mary Key (as it was sometimes known) would have been quite a 'tight knit' community. However, religion was irrelevant when it came to business.

Charles the ‘Del Boy’

The lady who did the research on Charles, Frances Torrington, spent many hours at the Suffolk Record Office getting to know Charles. She told me that she thought Charles seemed a bit of ‘Del Boy’. Although I doubted this at first, seeing as he was a Freeman and Water Bailiff, the more I have learned about Charles, the more I agree. He was certainly an entrepreneur and took advantage of all sorts of business opportunities including buying and selling property, selling boat paraphernalia, importing salt fish from Iceland and probably numerous other business activities which we’ll never know. 

Although the first records of Charles do not state his occupation, later records (Pigot & Co. Directory, 1830) show him as the Landlord of the Smack Inn. In my opinion, inns, taverns and alehouses were just as important to the lives of ordinary people as churches. They were vitally important to the businesses of the lower classes. In the days before telephones, public houses provided a meeting place to arrange work and do business. They served a much bigger purpose than today, they were a place to do business, obtain information, socialise and relax. 

 

















Here are a couple of sketches of Inn Keepers made around the time Charles would have lived in Ipswich. I wonder if he looked anything like these?


Historically, dock areas were associated with crime and therefore not the best place to be – the promenade, further up the river was a much nicer place where the upper class residents would take a stroll. The Smack Inn (roughly where the Premier inn is today) was listed in 1830 under Taverns rather than Inns, although we know it provided rooms for rent. So, perhaps the area is why it was listed as a tavern – not such an upmarket place? Even so, Charles was worried about his reputation. He wrote (or rather dictated - he couldn't write) an article for the Ipswich journal about a fire in a room.

Sir, In the Suffolk Chronicle of last Saturday was inserted “that the bed hanging in one of my chambers were carelessly set on fire by a drunken man”: consequently I respectfully beg to assert, through the medium of your valuable Paper, in order to convince my friends and the public in general, to the contrary, - that the person was quite sober, and the accident was occasioned by a spark falling from the candle. I am, sir, Your most humble servant CHARLES JOBSON, Smack Inn, Ipswich 21st April 1826.

Hmm… But was he worried about his reputation as Tavern Keeper or Politician? Was 'The Chronicle' a ‘Whig’ newspaper and the 'Ipswich Journal' a ‘Tory’ newspaper? Charles gained 259 votes for the Blue Party on 30 September of that same year!

As I mentioned before, Charles had quite a fleet of brigs and smacks coming in and out of Ipswich. But perhaps his finest moment was the launch of his new wherry, the 'Lord Nelson', advertised in the Ipswich Journal on 13 July 1822.
New Wherry
To and from Harwich daily
From the Smack Inn, Common Quay, Ipswich
To the Half Moon and Ship Inns, Harwich
Mr Charles Jobson
Begs leave to inform his friends and the public
That he has built the said Wherry for the purpose
Of taking passengers to and from Harwich daily
She has commodious and neat accommodation and is every way fitted up for the enjoyment of those friends who may confer favours upon which he respectfully solicits ensuring them nothing will be found wanting to contribute to their convenience and comfort, or safe delivery of all parcels entrusted to his care.
Select parties wishing for a day’s excursion may be accommodated on the lowest terms.

He sold it in 1826!

So, who was Charles Jobson and how did he fit into Ipswich society? 

 

I like to think that, in some ways, Charles was a ‘Del Boy’ of his time, although obviously, Ipswich in around 1800 was hugely different to 1990’s Peckham! Like Del, Charles perhaps behaved as though he was wealthier or from a higher class than he really was. He must have been rather optimistic, with perhaps a confident and friendly, if sometimes forceful and persuasive, manner which which helped him in his business dealings.

In contrast to Del Boy, Charles was a popular fellow in politics (even on the occasions when he lost an election, he had well over 200 votes!) which enabled him to become a respectable member of the community. And even more unlike Del, Charles appears to have been a successful businessman and the fact that he couldn’t write didn’t seem to hold him back at all! 



This epitaph says to me - Don't worry about material things, on the inside we're all the same, be happy and make the most of what you have. I’d like to think that Charles felt this when he was alive. 
I think I would have liked Charles Jobson!



Blatchly, John, Eighty Ipswich Portraits, 1980
Clemis, J. David, Government in an English Provincial Town: The Corporation of Ipswich, 1720-95, 1999
Hilton, Boyd, A Mad, Bad and Dangerous People? England 1783-1846, 2006
Malster, Robert, Ipswich town on the Orwell, 1978
Olsen, Kirsten, Daily Life in 18th Century Britain, 1999
Pigot and Co's, National Commercial Directory 1830
Tissington, Silvester, A Collection of Epitaphs and Monumental Inscriptions on the Most Illustrious Persons of All Ages and Countries, 1857 







Thursday, 9 October 2014

Freston and Its Secrets


An old postcard of Freston Tower c.1900


Just a short distance from Woolverstone Hall and Pin Mill, two of my previous posts, lies the village of Freston. It's just four miles from Ipswich. It is famous for it's mysterious Tower but also something else which is quite shocking...

In the middle cottage of three named Latimer Cottages, in Freston, lived Mr and Mrs Chapman and their four children. On Tuesday 13 September 1910, the third child was taken ill. She had a temperature of 105°F, and over the next six days developed a cough which worsened.  She became delirious and suffered with diarrhoea and sickness. She died on 16 September. On the 21 September, the day after her funeral, her mother developed the same symptoms and died two days later. Mr Chapman, and a near neighbour who had nursed Mrs Chapman, both fell ill and died on 29 September.

This was the last outbreak of plague to occur in England and it is believed that this outbreak, along with two other later confirmed incidents between 1906 and 1918 in Shotley and Trimley, were the result of fleas from rats brought by shipping on the rivers Orwell and Stour which merge at the Shotley Gate peninsular.

That was a hundred years ago, but nearly five hundred years ago the Tower was built.  The purpose of this magnificent building is unclear although there are many theories including; a leisure house for the daughter of the owner, where she could participate in six different pass times (one for each floor) including astronomy from the top floor, a lookout tower against pirates, part of a pleasure garden and also, that it was built especially for the visit of Queen Elizabeth I's visit to Ipswich in 1579. 



View of the Tower from the river


Through dendochronology it has been found that Freston Tower was built between 1578 and 1579 by a local merchant Thomas Gooding. And the most likely explanation for the building was that it was a folly (built entirely for decoration and no specific purpose), if so, it would have been one of the first in the country.

When we visited the property on the Ipswich Heritage Open Weekend in 2012, there were volunteers on the ground floor who explained the history of the building and answered questions while we were waiting.

The stairs


Unfortunately, I can't remember the order of the floors as I had to take a quick snap when there was no-one around, which was quite difficult, so the pictures are in no specific order.



The guest bedroom

The master bedroom

The cosy living room. This was on the top floor.


The views from the top of the Tower are beathtaking.


Looking toward Ipswich

Looking toward Felixstowe

The Tower has been restored by the Landmark Trust and is available to hire for short breaks and holidays. It really is a charming, quaint and unusual place to stay, as you can see, is it has everything you need for a holiday.

The road from Ipswich to Freston winds along the river giving beautiful views of the boats, ships and the many birds which congregate along the the water's edge. The road also gives a close up view of the impressive the Orwell Bridge. The village used to have a lovely little pub The Boot, but unfortunately this has been closed for some time.


Freston Tower is available to hire for holidays from The Landmark Trust.
If you would like a walk near Ipswich, the Suffolk Coasts and Heaths website has a printable leaflet for a walk in this area called the Wherstead Explorer.

References:
The Last Epidemic of Plague in England? Suffolk 1906-1918, Medical History 14, p63-74, David Van Zwanenberg








Woolverstone Hall

Woolverstone village, legend has it, got it's name when a Viking marauder named 'Wulf' sacrificed a maiden on a huge monolithic stone - Wulf-stone!

Woolverstone Hall

We visited Woolverstone Hall on the Ipswich Heritage Open Day in 2012.  It was built in 1776 for William Berners, a property developer from London, who requested it be built in a modern Palladian design. William Berners and his successors also invested in the village itself providing cottages with spacious gardens for his workers and even a holiday home for impoverished clergy.  In later years, the family were also responsible for many of the village's social functions, including the annual flower show and children's outings

When William Berners died, the house passed down to his son who built an obelisk in honour of his father.  The obelisk was burnt down by fire in 1943 and was so badly damaged that it was demolished using explosives.

The building remained in the possession of the Berners family until they sold it to Oxford University in 1937 where it stayed empty until the War Office took it over in 1939. After the war, London County Council leased the Hall in order to re-house the London Nautical School which became Woolverstone Boys Boarding School in 1959 and which closed in 1990.

Ipswich High School for Girls was relocated to Woolverstone Hall in 1992 and is still situated there today.


On our visit we were a little concerned to find a message on the door to the entrance to the underground passageways which reads:
'It's a cruel, cruel world to face on your own, 
Flesh turns to dust, as to dust turns bone, 
Was it really that wise to come here ALONE?'


 
Err yes! And it was rather spooky!


 There were lots of tunnels and dark, creepy rooms down there


 View from the first floor window



One of the most remarkable things that we saw was the weather vane, not unusual in itself, as you can see here, until you see the other part of the feature, the dial.

Downstairs in one of the rooms, which is now used as an office, is this dial which shows you the wind direction without you having to go outside. It may be totally unique. Fascinating!

There is B&B accomodation within the village at Maytrees
You can hire rooms at Woolverstone Hall for wedding receptions or events.
There is a river walk which takes you past Woolverstone Hall which begins at the Butt and Oyster Inn.  Suffolk Coasts and Heaths Pub AONB (Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty) Pub Walks provides a printable map and details.


References:
The Suffolk Village Book, Suffolk Federations of Women's Institutes, 1991

Tuesday, 7 October 2014

The Butt and Oyster at Pin Mill

An old postcard of the Butt and Oyster

'...Pin Mill - where the weather beaten fishermen and daring smuggler meet in friendly intercourse, to relate their hair-breadth escapes and wonderful adventures, over a pipe and a jug, at the Butt and Oyster...' [1]

The hamlet of Pin Mill is reached through the village of Chelmondiston, (I was told when I interviewed a local bargeman for University Campus Suffolk, that the locals call it 'Cheldiston'). There is a narrow lane taking you down to the river Orwell and to the Butt and Oyster where there is a customer car park. Otherwise, you can park in the public car park, which stands about half way down the lane, when you can walk past the pretty cottages which nestle alongside the 'boaty' buildings to the water.


An old postcard (sent in 1914). Note; the wooden building to the right has since been demolished.
 
When doing the research for this historic pub I've come across so much amazing information for Pin Mill and the Butt and Oyster:
  •  The Butt and Oyster is reputed to be the Most Painted Pub in Britain
  • The author of children's adventure stories, Arthur Ransome, spent time at Alma Cottage (just up the road) and based two of his books; We didn't Mean to go to Sea and Secret Water here
  • Some scenes from the 1950 film Ha'Penny Breeze were filmed here
  • An episode of a BBC radio series, Country Magazine, was broadcast from the Butt and Oyster on Sunday 16 March 1951
  • In the 1920's, the tobacco company Churchman's located in nearby Ipswich, produced a card in advertisement of it's Counter Shag showing the bay window. (The picture used for this advertisement hangs above the fire in the bar.)
  • An episode of Lovejoy was filmed here in 1993
  • And, if all that's not enough, what about Hollywood celebrities dining here? In 2006, during filming of Cassandra's Dream, Ewan McGregor and Colin Farrell came here for lunch! 
The Butt and Oyster from the Orwell in Oct 2012

The Butt and Oyster and indeed, Pin Mill itself, is considered one of the most beautiful places in Suffolk and as such is very popular for visitors and for sailing, but in the past it was very much a working community.  Barges would have been seen going up and down the Orwell on their way to and from the Thames or collecting loads from the big ships which would anchor nearby at Butterman's Bay to come down to Ipswich.

The village of Chelmondiston and the hamlet of Pin Mill together were almost self sufficient, providing over time: a flour mill, a coal merchant, a forge, an undertaker, a boot maker, two grocers, three public houses, a physician and surgeon, a florist, a hairdresser, a saddler, a blacksmith, a butcher, a cycle repairers, a builder, a carpenter, a painter and a police station. But perhaps the most amusing, according to the Women's Institute, two carriers called 'Last' and 'Late'!

Of course, the main industry of the area is the building and maintenance of boats and the transfer of goods. It was a busy landing point for ship-borne cargo, and it was also a repair centre for the Thames Sailing Barges, there are still businesses in Pin Mill carrying on with the marine trade and there is a popular Sailing Club. A previous proprietor of the Butt and Oyster Inn was a Marine Store Dealer whilst later, the 'host' was 'renowned as a public singer of repute in Ipswich and a dealer in the antique'.[2]
 

View from the Bay Window in October 2013

The Inn is mentioned as early as 1553, when licensing laws began, and when it was issued with its first licence. The Admiralty Courts were held at the Butt and Oyster in 1546, 1549 and 1552 by the Water Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Port of Ipswich.  In 1610, an Admiralty Court was provided dinner and wine at the Butt and Oyster which was paid for by the Ipswich Corporation.


Low Tide September 2012
The area is also known for smuggling, which is interestingly noted in more than one book I have referred to, as an 'industry' rather than a 'crime'.  Will Laud, the smuggler and boyfriend of the local legend Margaret Catchpole, was said to have used the Butt and Oyster for these means.

Pin Mill is a beautiful hamlet mostly frequented by 'boaty' people, dog walkers and those taking in the magnificent view or a picturesque walk. We often visit the popular Butt and Oyster, it's just five miles from Ipswich and is a lovely old building with lots of charm and history and it's always busy, but don't let that put you off, the food here is excellent. It's part of the Deben Inns chain. If you just want to pop in for a drink, they serve continental style coffees, many types of tea, real ale and wines.

The Bar September 2012

Visit the Butt and Oyster any time of the year to take in the view and experience the ambiance. There is seating outside where you can watch the boats and take in the beautiful Suffolk coast in the summer months. Whereas, in the winter months, you can sit inside in the warm and look at the water from beside the cosy real fire. When you're sitting there, you can imagine, a few years ago watching artists, writers and photographers searching for inspiration, whilst go back a hundred or so years and imagine rubbing shoulders with the bargemen or even a smuggler or two.

If you are looking for walks near Ipswich, The National Trust provides details of a lovely walk round Pin Mill. Or have a look at Suffolk Coasts and Heaths Pub AONB (Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty) Pub Walks where you can find a downloadable for a walk which takes you past Woolverstone Hall with a printable map and details.
If you would like to stay in Pin Mill for a holiday or a break, Alma Cottage, once the home of Arthur Ransome, is available for hire on a weekly basis.

References:
[1] History of Ipswich by G R Clark, 1830 (Inns of the Suffolk Coast by Leonard P Thompson 1946)
[2] Inns of the Suffolk Coast by Leonard P Thompson, 1946
Best Inns and Pubs in East Anglia, James Lawrence, 1988
Inns and Inn Signs of Norfolk and Suffolk, Alfred Hedges, 1976
The Suffolk Village Book, Suffolk Federations of Women's Institutes, 1991

Monday, 6 October 2014

The Ancient House, Ipswich


'There is, about the Ancient House in the Buttermarket, an atmosphere of incredible romance. Proud and serene it stands, not as an ageworn and pathetic relic of a bygone era, but as a jewel of antiquity in a baser setting of unbecoming modernity' 
wrote Philip Orwell in 1946. This applies as much today as it did then.


Postcard of the Ancient House in the Buttermarket c. 1920

The Ancient House in The Buttermarket also known as Sparrowe's House is perhaps the most famous building in Ipswich. You will frequently see it being photographed by tourists and locals alike. It is particularly remarkable because of its unique pargetting (decorative plaster work) especially below the four front oriel windows depicting four continents: Europe with a Gothic church, Asia with a mosque, Africa on a crocodile under a sunshade and America with a tobacco pipe.

I have always understood that there are only four continents depicted because Australasia and Antarctica hadn't been discovered at the time the pargetting was carried out (1660-1670). However, this is not the case. Australasia was discovered by Europeans in 1606 and the first English sighting was in 1622. The four continents were merely an interpretation of the world at that time; Australasia was taken as part of Asia until the late 18th century. So, don't let the guides tell you otherwise!

The Library
Sparrowe's House, as it is also known, is a 15th century grade I listed merchants house. Although the earliest reference of a building on the site dates back to the 14th century, the earliest surviving section was built by Sir Thomas Fastolf as his home some time before 1483 and it continued to be used as a dwelling up until the middle of the 19th century. As well as a family home, it has been occupied as a printers works, a subscription library (see postcard) and parts of it were leased out to an architect and a property developer. The building was used as an advertisement for Ipswich and was photographed frequently inside and out throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries for picture postcards when it was tenanted as a bookshop. In the early 19th century, it housed Madame Tussaud's travelling exhibition.

Stories of Ghosts, Tunnels and Kings


Being such an old building, it has witnessed quite a bit of history. The area of Ipswich in which it sits has seen much change in the years it has stood there. Before 1600 the area was a fish market which would have been extremely busy and very smelly and the first recorded resident on that site, George Copping,  rented the land for his fish stalls and later, then a successful merchant, placed the first house there. In 1601 the first of the Sparrowe family, William Sparrowe, took ownership of the property and by 1635 the fish market was removed in favour of butter, a much more pleasant smelling trade than fish. The Sparrowe family continued to enlarge and enhanced the building to what we see today. The street, however, wasn't named the Buttermarket until the mid 19th century, long after butter had actually been sold there. 

The building being so old has quite a magical feel to it and there have been numerous accounts of ghostly presences and sightings. Staff who worked at the bookshop in the middle of the last century refused to enter the attic after dark. Some of the staff of Lakeland Ltd who currently rent the property, talk of items being moved in the night and also of strange happenings and presences.

The Sparrowe family were Royalists, the beautiful gold pargetting depicting the Royal Coat of Arms for King Charles II in pride of place at the front and middle of the building reflects this. The family were also known to have owned a miniature of Mrs Jane Lane. I have a 1950's guide to Ipswich, which tells of the 'secret room', rediscovered in 1801. The story is that Mrs Jane Lane helped King Charles to escape from Boscobel House after the Battle of Worcester and that he supposedly hid in this chapel or 'priest hole' at some time during his journey from Worcester to Brighton. The likelihood that this actually happened has now been disproven and the Coat of Arms is likely a commemoration of the Kings visit to Ipswich in 1668.

The 'Secret Room', otherwise known as the Chapel or Priest Hole
So, for the tunnels. There were allegedly very deep and very haunted tunnels underneath the heart of Ipswich. This network of tunnels links the Ancient House to Fore Street, Christchurch Mansion and the Old Custom House. Part of the tunnels are reputed to have led to Alnesbourne Priory, three miles away, and this is the tunnel which King Charles supposedly took to flee undetected from the Ancient House. There were definitely tunnels and cellars under the Ancient House as in World War II the cellars were used as air raid shelters and were equipped with chemical toilets and a dartboard! However, evidence of all this was probably lost during renovations in 1984 to stop the building collapsing, over 260 tonnes of concrete were used to fill in the foundations.


The Ancient House was bought by Ipswich Borough Council in 1979 when it was near to collapsing. They restored it to its former glory and promised that Ipswich's most famous building would always be used for commercial purposes and therefore accessible to the public. It is currently occupied by Lakeland Limited, kitchen cookware suppliers.

Books
'The Ancient House Ipswich', East Anglian Magazine, November 1946, Philip Orwell
The Buildings of England - Suffolk, Nicholas Pevsner
Ipswich, Ward Lock
Ipswich Street by Street, Carol Twinch

Websites:
http://www.hiddenea.com/suffolki.htm

Wednesday, 17 September 2014

Talbot Mineral Water


To follow on from my previous post Botanical Brew and Mineral Water in Ipswich, I was contacted a while ago by a reader who has come across some bottles found in Bramford Lane, Ipswich marked 'Talbot and Co. Mineral Water, Ipswich' and asked me to try to find out about this company.

As mentioned in my previous post, mineral water originated from the health spas around Europe, people thought that the waters had special properties and went to these spas to take the waters and improve their health.  Mineral water suppliers at The Great Exhibition of 1851 introduced their product in bottles and by the end of the nineteenth century, mineral water was accessible to almost anyone.

In the latter half of the 17th century, a spring was discovered on St George's Street, at that time is was very popular for the wealthy to flock to spas to drink and bathe in the fresh spring waters as an aid to good health. However, Ipswich already had a spa - the 'Ipswich Spa Waters' in St Margaret's Green and the idea of opening another spa in this area was rejected. However, years later the Talbot family may have spotted an opportunity just around the corner which was to be the making of them.


1855, The beginning


Entry as it appears in White's Directory 1855
In 1851, the Talbot family were living in Crown Street. John Talbot, born in Norwich, Norfolk, aged 50 was a Dyer, he was living there with his wife and six children the eldest of whom was his son aged 21 who was also named John and was also working as a Dyer. Father and son must have seen that there was an opportunity for in 1855 the first advertisement appeared in White's Directory. They were actually advertising their services in three sections; 1,Booksellers, Binders, Printers and Stationers; 2.Dyers and Scourers and 3.Ginger Beer and Soda Water Makers. It appears that John junior was selling books and stationery whilst John senior was running the drinks manufacturing together with the Dyers and Scourers business.



By the time of the census in 1861, John senior, his wife Mary and their youngest son William had moved just around the corner from Crown Street into 12 St George's Street. John still stated that he was working as a Silk Dyer and his son William was a Soda Water Maker. John junior had been up to Norwich and had married Harriet Elvey Barr from Ireland. He had come back to live in Crown Street with his new wife and his two sisters Pauline and Levina. He described his occupation in the census as a Book Seller and Soda Water Maker employing 6 men and 2 boys.

The drinks business was successful and the family ceased trading in Bookselling and Dyeing, just concentrating on drinks manufacturing. By 1881 and presumably after the death of John senior (I can find no further details of him after the 1861 census) John and Harriet were living comfortably and were able to hire a servant and John had doubled his workforce.

By 1885 the business had expanded and another outlet had opened in Saxmundham. John moved from the hustle and bustle of the town centre to the very beautiful Plantation House in Burlington Road (which surprisingly enough I have visited. It is now owned by one of my personal heroes of history Dr John Blatchly, author and previous Headmaster of Ipswich School). Moving here was a step up the social ladder for John Talbot and a clear indication of a successful businessman.

All the census returns after 1891 show that John was living on his own means which means that he was doing rather well indeed and was probably no longer directly running the business but had employed someone else to do it for him.

Kelly's Directory for 1908 show that two further branches had opened in Felixstowe and Stowmarket


By 1922 Talbot's had opened up another branch in Colchester, there were now four branches serving two counties and perhaps beyond.

Although the advertisements for Talbot & Co maintain that the company was established in 1840, this is very unlikely.  John Talbot senior does not appear in White's Directory of 1844, also he states that his occupation in 1841 was a Dyer as it was in 1851. John junior was only 12 in 1841 so would not have been doing any business. So it appears that there may have been a little exaggeration when making the logo/trademark of the company.

 

1925, The Beginning of the End


Well into their eighties, Harriette passed away on 1 April 1925 and John followed just a few weeks later on 19 May.  The couple never had any children and their estate worth over £25,000 (approximately £750,000 in today's money) went to probate. I have not found out what happened to their Estate.

Advertisement on the back of the Third Ipswich Exhibition 1938
By 1933 Talbot Mineral Water were advertising as Talbot & Co Ltd, mineral water and cordial manufacturers; suppliers of A J Caley & Sons Ltd. Mineral waters; manufactory and office Unicorn Works, Foundation Street (TN 3212) and at Colchester and Saxmundham. They had moved their head office and works to Foundation Street which was also the site of a brewery and Inn and had ceased trading in Felixstowe and Stowmarket. A few years later they had expanded their services to include the wholesale selling of biscuits and tobacco. Talbot advertised their product on the back page of the souvenir programme for the Third Ipswich Ideal Homes and Trades Exhibition in February 1938 claiming that their mineral waters were celebrated and that they were suppliers to hotels, restaurants, licensed premises, sports clubs and that their specialities were used daily in the fashion parades!

An interesting account of the later years of the company can be found at the bottom of the page at:
The Ipswich Historic Lettering Website

Although Mr Catchpole claims that his father founded Talbot and Co., (which is not the case) it is quite possible that he took over the business and moved the company to the premises in Foundation Street.


I found Talbot & Co. in two further directories;1947 and 1956 and that is the last I found of the company. In Kelly's Ipswich Directory for 1958 Cantrell and Cochrane Ltd are the occupiers of Unicorn Works.

I would be very pleased to find out any further information for this old Ipswich company which traded in Ipswich for over 100 years, I would love to hear from you.


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Kelly's Directory for Suffolk; 1858, 1883, 1888, 1892, 1908, 1912, 1916, 1922, 1925, 1933, 1937, 1938
Kelly's Directory for Ipswich; 1947, 1956, 1958

Carol Twinch, Ipswich Street by Street, 2006
White's Directory for Suffolk; 1844,1855, 1874, 1885, 1891-2